Latent Class Modeling

Articles and book chapters

Bakk, Zs., and Vermunt, J.K. (in press). Robustness of stepwise latent class modeling with continuous distal outcomes. Structural Equation Modeling.

Bakk, Zs., Oberski, D., and Vermunt, J.K. (in press). Relating latent class membership to continuous distal outcomes: improving the LTB approach and a modified three-step implementation. Structural Equation Modeling.

Saenger, Y.M., Magidson, J., Chi-Hung Liaw, B., de Mol, E., Harcharik, S., Fu, Y., Wassmann, K., Fisher, D., Kirkwood, J., Oh, W.K., and Friedlander, P. (2014). Blood mRNA signature to predict survival in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with tremelimumab. Clinical Cancer Research Journal, 20(24).

Yardley, D.A., Tripathy, D., Brufsky, A.M., Rugo, H.S., Kaufman, P.A., Mayer, M., Magidson, J., Yoo, B., Quah, C., and Ulcickas Yood, M. (2014). Long-term survivor characteristics in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer from registHER. British Journal of Cancer, 110(11), 2756-64.

Bakk, Zs., Tekle, F.B., and Vermunt, J.K. (2013). Estimating the association between latent class membership and external variables using bias adjusted three-step approaches. Sociological Methodology, 43, 272-311.

Gudicha, D.W., and Vermunt, J.K. (2013). Mixture model clustering with covariates using adjusted three-step approaches. B. Lausen, D. van den Poel, and A. Ultsch (eds), Algorithms from and for Nature and Life; Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization. 87-93. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag GmbH.

Ross, R.W., Galsky, M.D., Scher, H.I., Magidson, J., Wassmann, K., Lee, G.S., Katz, L., Subudhi, S., Anand, A., Fleisher, M., Kantoff, P., and Oh, W. (2012). A whole-blood RNA transcript-based prognostic model in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a prospective study. The Lancet Oncology, 13( 11), 1105–1113.

van den Bergh, M., Schmittmann, V.D., and Vermunt, J.K. (2017). Building latent class trees, with an application to social capital. Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 13(Suppl. 1), 12-22. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K. (2010). Latent class modeling with covariates: Two improved three-step approaches. Political Analysis, 18, 450-469.

Vermunt, J.K., van Ginkel, J.R., van der Ark, L.A., and Sijtsma, K. (2008). Multiple imputation of incomplete categorical data using latent class analysis. Sociological Methodology, 33, 369-397. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K., and Magidson, J. (2007). Latent class analysis with sampling weights: A maximum likelihood approach. Sociological Methods and Research, 36, 87-111. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2004). Latent class models. In: Kaplan., D (Ed.), The Sage Handbook of Quantitative Methodology for the Social Sciences, Chapter 10, 175-198. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K., and Magidson, J. (2003). Latent class models for classification. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 41,3-4, 531-537. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2002). Latent class models for clustering: a comparison with K-means. Canadian Journal of Marketing Research, 20, 36-43. (pdf)

Magidson, J. and Vermunt, J.K. (2002). Latent class modeling as a probabilistic extension of K-means clustering. Quirk’s Marketing Research Review, March 2002, 20 & 77-80. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K., and Magidson, J. (2002). Latent class cluster analysis. In: J. A. Hagenaars and A. L. McCutcheon (Eds.), Applied Latent Class Analysis, 89-106. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (pdf)

Proceedings and working papers

Popper, R., Kroll, J., and Magidson, J. (2004). Applications of latent class models to food product development: a case study. Sawtooth Software Proceedings, 2004. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2006). Use of latent class regression models with a random intercept to remove overall response level effects in rating data. A. Rizzi, and M Vichi (eds.), Proceedings in Computational Statistics , 351-360. Heidelberg: Springer. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2002). Nontechnical introduction to latent class models. Statistical Innovations White Paper #1. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2000). Bi-plots and related graphical displays based on latent class factor and cluster models. In: Jansen, W., and Bethlehem, J.G. (Eds.), Proceedings in Computational Statistics 2000, 121-122. Statistics Netherlands. ISSN 0253-018X. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K., and Magidson, J. (2000). Graphical displays for latent class cluster and latent class factor models. In: Blasius, J., Hox, J., de Leuw, E., and Schmith, P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Logic and Methodology, TT-Publications. (pdf)

Recommended book

Bartholomew, D. J., and Knott, M., and Moustaki, I. (2011) Latent variable models and factor analysis: a unified approach, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, London, UK. ISBN 9780470971925.

Encyclopedia entries

Vermunt, J.K. and Magidson, J. (2005). Structural equation models: Mixture models. In: B. Everitt and D. Howell, (eds.), Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science, 1922–1927. Chichester, UK: Wiley. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K. and Magidson, J. (2004). Latent class analysis. In: M.S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T.F. Liao (eds.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, 549-553. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K. and Magidson, J. (2004). Latent variable. In: M.S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T.F. Liao (eds.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, 555-556. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K. and Magidson, J. (2004). Local independece. In: M.S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T.F. Liao (eds.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, 580-58. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K. and Magidson, J. (2004). Non-parametric random-effects model. In: M.S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T.F. Liao (eds.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, 732-733. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (pdf)

Discrete Factor Models

Articles and book chapters

Vermunt, J.K., and Magidson, J. (2004). Factor analysis with categorical indicators: a comparison between traditional and latent class approaches. In: Van der Ark, A., Croon, M.A., and Sijtsma, K. (Eds), New Developments in Categorical Data Analysis for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Erlbaum. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2003). Comparing latent class factor analysis with traditional factor analysis for datamining. In: Bozdogan, H. (Ed), Statistical Datamining & Knowledge Discovery, Chapter 22, 373-383. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. CRC Press. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2001). Latent class factor and cluster models, bi-plots and related graphical displays. Sociological Methodology, 31, 223-264. (pdf)

Latent Class Discrete Choice Modeling

Articles and book chapters

Bradlow, E. (2004). Current issues and a “wish list” for conjoint analysis. Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry. (pdf)

Comments by Jay Magidson, SI and Jeroen K. Vermunt, Tilburg University. (pdf)

Comments by Jordan J. Louviere, University of Technology, Sydney.(pdf)

Comments by Bryan Orme, Sawtooth Software. (pdf)

Comments by Joffre Swait, Advanis Inc. (pdf)

Rejoinder to reviewer comments by Eric Bradlow, University of Pennsylvania.(pdf)

van den Bergh, van Kollenberg, G. H., & Vermunt, J. K. (in press).  Deciding on the number of classes of a latent class tree. (pdf)

Proceedings and working papers

Magidson, J. & Bennett, G. (2016).  How to develop a MaxDiff typing tool to assign new cases to meaningful segments.  2016 ART Forum. (pdf)

Magidson, J. Thomas, D., Vermunt, J.K. (2009). A new model for the fusion of MaxDiff scaling and ratings data. 2009 Sawtooth Software Proceedings, 83-103. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2007). Removing the scale confound in multinomial logit choice models to obtain better estimates of preference. October 2007 Sawtooth Software Conference Proceedings. (pdf)

Magidson, J., Eagle, T., and Vermunt, J.K. (2005). Using parsimonious conjoint and choice models to improve the accuracy of out-of-sample share predictions. Presented at the 2005 ART Forum. (pdf)

Magidson, J., Eagle, T., and Vermunt, J.K. (2003). New developments in latent class choice models. April 2003 Sawtooth Software Conference Proceedings, 89-112. (pdf)

Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling

Articles and book chapters

Bennink, M., Croon, M.A., Keuning, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2014). Measuring student ability, classifying schools, and detecting item-bias at school-level based on student-level dichotomous attainment items. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistic, 39(3), 180-202.

Bennink, M., Croon, M.A., & Vermunt, J.K. (2013). Micro–macro multilevel analysis for discrete data: A latent variable approach and an application on personal network data. Sociological Methods and Research, 42(4), 431-457.

Magidson, J., Vermunt, J.K., Tran, B. (2008). Using a mixture latent Markov model to analyze longitudinal U.S. employment data involving measurement error. In: Shigemasu, K., Okada, A., Imaizum, T., and Hoshino, T. (Eds). New Trends in Psychometrics. Frontiers Science Series No. 55 (FSS-55), 235-242. Universal Academy Press, Inc. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K., Tran, B., and Magidson, J. (2008). Latent class models in longitudinal research. In: Menard, S. (ed.), Handbook of Longitudinal Research: Design, Measurement, and Analysis, pp. 373-385. Burlington, MA: Elsevier. (pdf)

Rasbash. J. (2005). Learning environment for multilevel methodology and applications (LEMMA). Multilevel modeling newsletter, 17(1). (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K., and Magidson, J. (2005). Hierarchical mixture models for nested data structures. In: Weihs, C., and Gaul, W., Classification: The Ubiquitous Challenge, 176-183. Heidelberg: Springer. (pdf)

Bijmolt, T.H., Paas, L.J., Vermunt , J.K. (2003). Country and consumer segmentation: Multi-level latent class analysis of Financial product ownership. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21, 323-340. (pdf)

Vermunt, J.K. (2003). Multilevel latent class models. Sociological Methodology, 33, 213-239. (pdf)

Proceedings and working papers

Magidson, J. (2013). Using mixture latent Markov models for analyzing change with longitudinal data. . Presented at Modern Modeling Methods (M3) 2013, University of Connecticut. (pdf)

CHAID (Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection)

Articles and book chapters

Magidson, J., and Vermunt, J.K. (2005). An extension of the CHAID tree-based segmentation algorithm to multiple dependent variables. In: Weihs, C., and Gaul, W. (eds.),   Classification: The Ubiquitous Challenge, 176-183. Heidelberg: Springer. (pdf)

Magidson, J. (1994). The CHAID Approach to Segmentation Modeling: CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection. In: Bagozzi, R. (ed.), Advanced Methods of Marketing Research. Blackwell.

Magidson, J. (1993). The Use of the New Ordinal Algorithm in CHAID to Target Profitable Segments. Journal of Database Marketing, London: Henry Stewart Publication.

Correlated Component Regression (CCR)

Articles and book chapters

Magidson, J. (2013). Correlated component regression: Re-thinking regression in the presence of near collinearity. In: New perspectives in partial least squares and related methods. Springer Verlag. (pdf)

Proceedings and working papers

Magidson, J. (2010). Correlated component regression: A prediction/classification methodology for possibly many features. 2010 JSM Proceedings of American Statistical Association, Section on Statistical Learning and Data Mining, 4372-4386. (pdf)

Magidson, J., and Wassmann, K. (2010). The role of proxy genes in predictive models: An application to early detection of prostate cancer. 2010 JSM Proceedings of American Statistical Association, Biometrics Section, 2739-2753. (pdf)

Categorical data

Articles and book chapters

Magidson, J. (1996). Maximum Likelihood Assessment of Clinical Trials Based on an Ordered Categorical Response. Drug Information Journal, 30 (1).

Magidson, J. (1994). Multivariate Statistical Models for Categorical Data. In: Bagozzi, R. (eds), Advanced Methods of Marketing Research, Blackwell.

Magidson, J. (1982). Some Common Pitfalls in the Causal Analysis of Categorical Data. Journal of Marketing Research, November issue.

Reviews of Statistical Innovations Software

Latent GOLD®

Deal, K. (2008). A big step forward in latent class analysis. Marketing Research Magazine, Fall, 48-50. (pdf)

Kent, P., Jensen, R.k., and Kongsted, A. (2014). A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data: SPSS TwoStep Cluster analysis, Latent Gold and SNOB. BMC Medical Research Methodology (14), 113. (link)

Haughton, D., Legrand, P., Woolford, S, (2009). Review of three latent class cluster analysis packages: Latent GOLD, polka, and MCLUST. The American Statistician, 63(1), 81-91. (pdf)


Deal, K. (2004). Mining for gold gets easier and a lot more fun!. Marketing Research Magazine, Spring, 1-7. (pdf


Deal, K. (2005). Deeper into trees. Marketing Research Magazine, Summer, 38-40. (pdf)

Publications referring to Latent GOLD®

Articles and book chapters

Schmitz, A., Yanenko, O., and Hebing, M. (2012). Identifying Artificial Actors in E-Dating: A Probabilistic Segmentation Based on Interactional Pattern Analysis. In: Gaul, W. (eds.), Challenges at the Interface of Data Analysis, Computer Science, and Optimization, Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24466-7 33, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. (pdf)

DeCarlo, L.T., (2011). Signal detection theory with item effects. Journal of Mathematical Psychology.

Burke, P. Burton, C., Huybers, T. Islam, T. Louviere, J.J., and Wise, C. (2010). The scale-adjusted latent class model: Application to museum visitation. Tourism Analysis, 15, 147-165.

DeCarlo, L.T. (2010). On the analysis of fraction subtraction data: The DINA model, classification, latent class sized and the Q-matrix. Applied Psychological Measurement, 35(8). (link)

DeCarlo, L.T., (2010). On the statistical and theoretical basis of signal detection theory and extensions: Unequal variance, random coefficient, and mixture models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54, 304-313. (pdf)

Dayton, C.M., (2008). An Introduction to Latent Class Analysis. In: Menard, S. (Ed), Handbook of Longitudinal Research: Design, Measurement, and Analysis, 22: 357-371.

Ruto, E., Garroda, g., and Scarpa, R. (2008). Valuing animal genetic resources: a choice modeling application to indigenous cattle in Kenya. Agricultural Economics, 38: 89–98. (pdf)

Althoff, R.R., Rettew, D.C., et al. (2006). Latent Class Analysis Shows Strong Heritability of the Child Behavior Checklist-Juvenile Bipolar Phenotype. Biological Psychiatry, 60(9), 903-911.

Borsboom, D. (2006). The Attack of the Psychometricians. Psychometrika, 71(3), 425-440.

Chung, H., Flaherty, B.P., and Schafer, J.L. (2006). Latent Class Logistic Regression: Application to Marijuana Use and Attitudes Among High School Seniors. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A – Statistics in Society, 169, 723-743.

Deal. K. (2006). Wizards and Potions: A new approach casts power on discrete choice conjoint experiments. Marketing Research Magazine, Fall issue, 49-51. (pdf)

Dunn K., Jordan, K., and Croft, P. (2006). Characterizing the Course of Lower Back Pain: A Latent Class Analysis. American Journal of Epidemiolog.(pdf)

Groenen, P.J.F., van der Ark, L.A. (2006). Visions of 70 Years of Psychometrics: The Past, Present, and Future. Statistica Neerlandica, 60(2), 135-144.

Groenier, K.H., Winters, J.C., van Schuur, W.H., et al. (2006). A Simple Classification System was Recommended for Patients with Restricted Shoulder or Neck Range of Motion. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 59(6), 599-607.

Hardie, E.A., Critchley, C., and Morris, Z. (2006). Self-Coping Complexity: Role of Self-Construal in Relational, Individual and Collective Coping Styles and Health Outcomes. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9(3), 224-235.

Haro, J.M., van Os, J., Vieta, E., et al. (2006). Evidence for Three Distinct Classes of ‘Typical’, ‘Psychotic’ and ‘Dual’ Mania: Results from the EMBLEM Study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113(2), 112-120.

Hipp, J.R., and Bauer, D.J. (2006). Local Solutions in the Estimation of Growth Mixture Models. Psychological Methods, 11(1), 36-53.

Kim, J., Jacobs, D.R., and Luepker, R.V., et al. (2006). Prognostic Value of a Novel Classification Scheme for Heart Failure: The Minnesota Heart Failure Criteria. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(2), 184-193.

Hwang, S.Y., and Zerwic, J.J. (2006). Knowledge of Stroke Symptoms and Risk Factors Among Korean Immigrants in the United States. Research in Nursing & Health, 29(4), 337-344.

Junghan, U.M., and Brenner, H.D. (2006). Heavy Use of Acute In-Patient Psychiatric Services: The Challenge to Translate a Utilization Pattern into Service Provision. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanevia, 113, 24-32.

Kuss, O., Gromann, C., and Diepgen, T.L. (2006). Model-Based Clustering of Binary Longitudinal Atopic Dermatitis Disease Histories by Latent Class Mixture Models. Biometrical Journal, 48(1), 105-116.

Ligthart, L., Boomsma, D.I., Martin, N.G., et al. (2006). Migraine with Aura and Migraine Without Aura are Not Distinct Entities: Further Evidence from a Large Dutch Population Study. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9(1), 54-63.

Lutumba, P., Robays, J., Miaka, C., et al. (2006). Validity, Cost and Feasibility of the mAECT and CTC as the Tests of Confirmation in the Detection of the African Human Trypanosomiasis.Tropical Medicine & International Health, 11(4), 470-478.

Markon, K.E., and Krueger, R. (2006). Information-Theoretic Latent Distribution Modeling: Distinguishing Discrete and Continuous Latent Variable Models. Psychological Methods, 11(3), 228-243.

Myers, T.C., Wonderlich S.A., et al. (2006). Is Multi-Impulsive Bulimia a Distinct Type of Bulimia Nervosa: Psychopathology and EMA Findings. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39 (8), 655-661.

Olofsson, A., and Ohman, S. (2006). General Beliefs and Environmental Concern – Transatlantic Comparisons. Environment and Behavior, 38(6), 768-790.

Reboussin, B.A., and Anthony, J.C. (2006). Is there Epidemiological Evidence to Support the Idea That a Cocaine Dependence Syndrome Emerges Soon After Onset of Cocaine Use?. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31(9), 2055-2064.

Rindskopf, D. (2006). Heavy Alcohol Use in the “Fighting Back” Survey Sample: Separating Individual and Community Level Influences Using Multilevel Latent Class Analysis. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(2), 441-462.

Sandell, R., Carlsson, J., Schubert, J., et al. (2006). Therapists’ Therapies: The relation Between Training Therapy and Patient Change in Long-Term Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis. Psychotherapy Research, 16(3), 306-316.

Smith, R.B. (2006). Social Structural Inquiries – Part 2: Statistical Methods and Process Models. Quality & Quantity, 40(1), 79-120.

Stichele, A.V., and Laerman, R. (2006). Cultural Participation in Flanders: Testing the Cultural Omnivore Thesis with Population Data. Poetics, 34(1), 45-64.

Stone, A.L., Storr, C.L., and Anthony, J.C. (2006). Evidence for a Hallucinogen Dependence Syndrome Developing Soon After Onset of Hallucinogen Use During Adolescence. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15(3), 116-130.

van der Ark. L.A., and Richards, G. (2006). Attractiveness of Cultural Activities in European Cities: A Latent Class Approach. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1408-1413.

van Gaalen, R.I., and Dykstra, P.A. (2006). Solidarity and Conflict Between Adult Children and Parents: A Latent Class Analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 68(4), 947-960.

Vollmer-Conna, U., Aslakson, E., and White, P.D. (2006). An Empirical Delineation of the Heterogeneity of Chronic Unexplained Fatigue in Women. Pharmacogenomics, 7(3), 355-364.

Wagner, A., Barbarich-Marsteller, N.C., Frank, G.K., et al. (2006). Personality Traits after Recovery from Eating Disorders: Do Subtypes Differ?. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39(4), 276-284.

Weinshenker, M.N. (2006). Adolescents’ Expectations about Mothers’ Employment: Life Course Patterns and Parental Influence. Sex Roles, 54(11-12), 845-857.

Borzan, J., LaGraize, S.C., Hawkins, D.L., and Peng, Y.B. (2005). Dorsal Horn Neuron Response Patterns to Graded Heat Stimuli in the Rat. Brain Research, 1045(1-2), 72-79.

Breslau, N., Reboussin, B.A., Anthony, J.C., and Storr, C.L. (2005). The Structure of Posttraumatic StressDisorder – Latent Class Analysis in 2 Community Samples. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(12), 1343-1351.

Crissey, S.R. (2005). Race/Ethnic Differences in the Marital Expectations of Adolescents: The Role of Romantic Relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 67(3), 697-709.

Crum, R.M., Storr, C.L., and Chan, Y.F. (2005). Depression Syndromes with Risk of Alcohol Dependence in Adulthood: a Latent Class Analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 79(1), 71-81.

DeCarlo, L.T. (2005). A Model of Rater Behavior in Essay Grading Based on Signal Detection Theory. Journal of Educational Measurement, 42(1), 53-76.

Finnegan, L., Marion, L., and Cox, C. (2005). Profiles of Self-Rated Health in Midlife Adults with Chronic Illnesses. Nursing Research, 54(3), 167-177.

Hamil-Luker, J. (2005). Trajectories of Public Assistance Receipt Among Female High School Dropouts. Population Research and Policy Review, 24(6), 673-694.

Hoffmann, J.P., and Johnson, S.M. (2005). Attitudes Toward Abortion Among Religious Traditions in the United States: Change or Continuity?. Sociology of Religion, 66(2), 161-182.

Huang, G.H. (2005). Selecting the Number of Classes Under Latent Class Regression: A Factor Analytic Analogue. Psychometrika, 70(2), 325-345.

Lipovetsky, S., and Conklin, W.M. (2005). Latent Class Regression Model in IRLS Approach. Mathemetical and Computer Modelling, 42(3-4), 301-312.

Lopez-Sintas, J., Katz-Gerro, T. (2005). From Exclusive to Inclusive Elitists and Further: Twenty Years of Omnivorousness and Cultural Diversity in Arts Participation in the USA. Poetics, 33(5-6), 299-319.

Lubke, G.H., and Muthen, B. (2005). Investigating Population Heterogeneity with Factor Mixture Models . Psychological Methods, 10(1), 21-39.

Markon, K.E., and Krueger, R.F. (2005). Categorical and Continuous Models of Liability to Externalizing Disorders – A Direct Comparison in NESARC. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(12), 1352-1359.

Moustaki, I., and Papageorgiou, I. (2005). Latent Class Models for Mixed Variables with Applications in Archaeometry. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 48(3), 659-675.

O’Rand, A.M., and Hamil-Luker, J. (2005). Processes of Cumulative Adversity: Childhood Disadvantage and Increased Risk of Heart Attack Across the Life Course. Journals of Gerontology Series B – Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(2), 117-124.

Poortman, A.R., Van Tilburg, T.G. (2005). Past Experiences and Older Adults’ Attitudes: A Lifecourse Perspective. Ageing and Society, 25(1), 19-39.

Scarpa, R. Thiene, M. (2005). Destination Choice Models for Rock Climbing in the Northeastern Alps: A Latent-Class Approach Based on Intensity of Preferences. Land Economics, 81 (3), 426–444. (pdf)

Sintas, J.L., and Alvarez, E.G. (2005). Four Characters on the Stage Playing Three Games: Performing Arts Consumption in Spain. Journal of Business Research, 58(10), 1446-1455.

Storr, C.L., Reboussin, B.A., and Anthony J.C. (2005). The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: A Comparison of Standard Scoring and Latent Class Analysis Approaches. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 80(2), 241-250.

Thacher, J.A., Morey, E., and Craighead, W.E. (2005). Using Patient Characteristics and Attitudinal Data to Identify Depression Treatment Preference Groups: A Latent-Class Model. Depression and Anxiety, 21(2), 47-54.

Vermunt J.K. (2005). Mixed-Effects Logistic Regression Models for Indirectly Observed Discrete Outcome Variables. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40(3), 281-301.

Wonderlich, S.A., Crosby, R.D., Joiner, T., et al. (2005). Personality Subtyping and Bulimia Nervosa: Psychopathological and Genetic Correlates. Psychological Medicine, 35(5), 649-657.

Yang, X.D., Shaftel, J., Glasnapp, D., and Poggio, J. (2005). Qualitative or Quantitative Differences? Latent Class Analysis of Mathematical Ability for Special Education Students. Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 194-207.

Zavisca, J. (2005). The Status of Cultural Omnivorism: A Case Study of Reading in Russia. Social Forces, 84(2), 1233-1255.

Audige, L., Hunter, J., Weinberg, A.M., Magidson, J. Slongo, T. (2004). Development and Evaluation Process of a Pediatric Long-Bone Fracture ClassificationProposal. European Journal of Trauma, 4, 248-254. (pdf)

Bacher, J., Wenzig, K., and Vogler, M. (2004). SPSS TwoStep Cluster – A First Evaluation. Arbeits- und Diskussionspapiere 2(2). (pdf)

Belsky, J., and Fearon, R.M.P. (2004). Exploring Marriage-Parenting Typologies and Their Contextual Antecedents and Developmental Sequelae. Development and Psychopathathology, 16(3), 501-523.

Bolck, A., Croon, M., and Hagenaars, J. (2004). Estimating Latent Structure Models with Categorical Variables: One-Step Versus Three-Step Estimators. Political Analysis, 12(1), 3-27.

Dragovic, M. (2004). Categorization and Validation of Handedness Using Latent Class Analysis, Acta Neuropspychiatrica,16(4), 212-218.

Hamil-Luker, J., Land, K.C., and Blau J. (2004). Diverse Trajectories of Cocaine use Through Early Adulthood Among Rebellious and Socially Conforming Youth. Social Science Research, 33(2), 300-321.

Hoijtink, H., and Notenboom, A. (2004). Model Based Clustering of Large Data Sets: Tracing the Development of Spelling Ability. Psychometrika, 69(3), 481-498.

Huang, G.H., and Bandeen-Roche, K. (2004). Building an Identifiable Latent Class Model with Covariate Effects on Underlying and Measured Variables. Psychometrika, 69(1), 5-32.

Kuppens, P., Van Mechelen, I., and Meulders, M. (2004). Every Cloud has a Silver Lining: Interpersonal and Individual Differences Determinants of Anger-Related Behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(12), 1550-1564.

McGrath, J.A., Nestadt, G., Liang, K.Y., et al. (2004). Five Latent Factors Underlying Schizophrenia: Analysis and Relationship to Illnesses in Relatives. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(4), 855-873.

Moors G., (2004). Facts and Artefacts in the Comparison of Attitudes Among Ethnic Minorities. A Multigroup Latent Class Structure Model with Adjustment for Response Style Behavior. European Sociological Review, 20(4), 303-320.

Rindskopf, D., and Strauss, S. (2004). Determining Predictors of True HIV Status Using an Errors-In-Variables Model with Missing Data. Structural Equation Modeling – A Multidisciplinary Journal, 11(1), 51-59.

Soothill, K., Francis, B., Awwad, F., et al. (2004). Grouping Cancer Patients by Psychosocial Needs. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 22(2), 89-109.

Storr, C.L., Reboussin, B.A., and Anthony, J.C. (2004). Early Childhood Misbehavior and the Estimated Risk of Becoming Tobacco-Dependent. American Journal of Epidemiology, 160(2), 126-130.

Storr, C.L., Zhou, H.L., Liang, K.Y., and Anthony, J.C. (2004). Empirically Derived Latent Classes of Tobacco Dependence Syndromes Observed in Recent-Onset Tobacco Smokers: Epidemiological Evidence from a National Probability Sample Survey. Nicotine & Tabacco Research, 6(3), 533-545.

van Tilburg, T., Havens, B., and Gierveld, J.D. (2004). Loneliness Among Older Adults in the Netherlands, Italy, and Canada: A Multifaceted Comparison. Canadian Journal on Aging-Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement, 23(2), 169-180.

Vermunt, J.K. (2004). An EM Algorithm for the Estimation of Parametric and Nonparametric Hierarchical Nonlinear Models. Statistica Neerlandica, 58(2), 220-233.

Zarich, S.W., Bradly, K., Mayall, I.D., and Bernstein, L.H. (2004). Minor elevations in troponin T values enhance risk assessment in emergency department patients with suspected myocardial ischemia: analysis of novel troponin T cut-off values. International Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Applied Molecular Biology. (pdf)

Zhang, N.L. (2004). Hierarchical Latent Class Models for Cluster Analysis. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 5, 697-723.

Bridges, W.P. (2003). Rethinking Gender Segregation and Gender Inequality: Measures and Meanings . Demography, 40(3), 543-568.

Croudace, T.J., Jarvelin, M.R., Wadsworth, M.E.J., and Jones, P.B. (2003). Developmental Typology of Trajectories to Nighttime Bladder Control: Epidemiologic Application of Longitudinal Latent Class Analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(9), 834-842.

Dayton, C.M. (2003), Applications and Computational Strategies for the Two-Point Mixture Index of Fit. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 56, 1-13.

Formann, A.K. (2003). Latent Class Model Diagnostics – A Review and Some Proposals. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 41(3-4), 549-559.

Kim, C.D., Lesage, A., Seguin, M., et al. (2003). Patterns of Co-Morbidity in Male Suicide Completers. Psychological Medicine, 33(7), 1299-1309.

Smith, R.B. (2003). Political Extremism – left, center, and right. The American Sociologist.(pdf)

Ter Braak, C.J.F., Hoijtink, H., Akkermans, W., and Verdonschot, P.F.M. (2003). Bayesian Model-Based Cluster Analysis for Predicting Macrofaunal Communities. Ecological Modelling, 160(3), 235-248.

Vermunt, J.K. (2003) Applications of latent class analysis in social science research. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 2711, 22-36.

Moors, G. (2003). Diagnosing Response Style Behavior by Means of a Latent-Class Factor Approach. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Gender Role Attitudes and Perceptions of Ethnic Discrimination Reexamined. Quantity & Quality, 37(3), 277-302.

DeCarlo, L.T. (2002). A Latent Class Extension of Signal Detection Theory, with Applications. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 37(4), 423-451.

Dudgeon, P. (2002). Market Segmentation: Conceptual and Methodological Foundations, 2nd Edition. Journal of Classifications, 19 (1), 179-182.

Formann, A.K., and Ponocny, I. (2002). Latent Change Classes in Dichotomous Data. Psychometrika, 67(3), 437-457.

Niemivirta, M. (2002). Motivation and Performance in Context: The Influence of Goal Orientations and Instructional Setting on Situational Appraisals and Task Performance. Psychologia, 45(4), 250-270.

Patterson, B.H., Dayton, C.M., and Graubard, B. (2002). Latent Class Analysis of Complex Sample Survey Data: Application to Dietary Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 97(459), 721-729.

Sintas, J.L., and Alvarez, E.G. (2002). Omnivores Show Up Again: The Segmentation of Cultural Consumers in Spanish Social Space. European Sociological Review, 18(3), 353-368.

Meulders, M., De Boeck, P., Kuppens, P., and Van Mechelen, I. (2002). Constrained Latent Class Analysis of Three-Way Three-Mode Data. Journal of Classification, 19(2), 277-302.

Proceedings and working papers

Wang, J. , Islam, T., Kanetkar, V. (2009). Scale Adjusted Latent Class Analysis for New Healthy Breakfast. 2009 INFORMS Marketing Science Conference, Ann Arbo.

Publications referring to GOLDMineR®

Articles and book chapters

Bernstein, L., Bradley, K., and Zarich, S. (2002). GOLDMineR: improving models for classifying patients with chest pain. Yale Journal of Biology & Medicine. (pdf)


Articles and book chapters

Magidson, J. (2000). On Models Used to Adjust for Preexisting Differences. In: Bickman (eds.), Research Design. Donald Campbell’s Legacy, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Magidson, J. (1988). Improved Statistical Techniques for Response Modeling: Progression Beyond Regression. Journal of Direct Marketing, 2(4).